The following is a list of sections (but not subsections) that I have
documented; those updated on and after 2018/06/12 I will try and keep the
last updated date on for easier viewing what's new but I can't promise I
will always remember to do this.
Ainu (p.l. Ainur): The Holy Ones; beings that Eru Ilúvatar created
Vala (p.l. Valar): The Powers of the World (Arda)
Maia (p.l. Maiar): Spirits who helped the Valar in Arda
Balrog: Maiar corrupted by Melko -> Melkor ->
Morgoth; they were his most formidable servants and it is they who
rescue him from Ungoliant who tried to devour him when he refused to
hand over the Silmarils after she helped him destroy the lights of the
world (as explained in the Quenta Silmarillion or The Silmarillion
proper); they would have destroyed her but Morgoth called them off. It
should be noted that Shelob is one of the offspring of Ungoliant.
Although they were considered at one point to be many or unspecified
amount Tolkien would later specify that there were very few, perhaps no
more than seven (the number was very small in any case). In the War of
[the] Wrath (in the First Age) at least one escaped and lie dormant for
years (until it was accidentally 'released' by the Dwarves in the Third
Age; that's the one the Dwarves called the Bane of Durin and it's the one
that Gandalf confronts and ultimately defeats (dying in the process like
everyone else who slew a Balrog but then brought back to life by Eru
Ilúvatar because of his sacrifice to make sure the quest would not fail
at that point as it would have otherwise) at the Bridge of Khazad-dûm
('The Bridge of the Mansion of Dwarves' or otherwise 'The Bridge of the
Dwarf Mansion') in the Mines of Moria (in Elvish of the Gnomish mode).
If you don't care about how I have tried to structure this then you can go
to the next section.
As for how I've gone about reading the history it's important to realise
there is a lot of background information, a lot of history with many drafts,
ideas changing and essentially everything being different in some way or
another. I started out initially reading from the first book but then I decided
that I wanted to read the history of The Lord of the Rings first; therefore I
started with book VI, entitled: The Return of the Shadow (a name that Tolkien
thought of before deciding on The Fellowship of the Ring).
I will try my best to organise this in a somewhat intuitive order where
possible (and when I have the motivation to do so) but I personally prefer having
more content over having the best organisation. But just like Middle-earth there
will be many drafts and versions of this document; I will try to document where
possible but this will never be remotely perfect.
In earlier drafts Sauron made many Rings and gave them out to the different
peoples of Middle-earth. The elves were given many and there were now many
elfwraiths but the Lord did not have any power over them (maybe the idea
that they weren't under the Lord but also were in the Unseen is a precursor to
Glorfindel in The Fellowship of the Ring where Frodo sees him in the Unseen as
he himself, Frodo, is fading into the wraith world? I don't know for certain
but neither do I have a recollection of even hints of this in TS - though of course I have not
read that part of the histories). The dwarves it was believed had none because they
could not be taken: they were too solid. Men had 'few' and goblins had many and
the invisible goblins were very evil and wholly under the control of the Dark
Lord. The men-wraiths were also under the dominion of the Lord of the Rings.
A second draft has it that the Dwarves had seven (like in the final) and they
become greedy and in this way they were controlled but not beyond that (which of course is shown in TH when Thorin
is very angry that Bilbo took the Arkenstone and used it as a way to negotiate
with the people of Lake-town).
The men now had 'three'but they found more which were
abandoned by Elfwraiths (and so there could be more than three black riders).
Here the Elfwraiths however weren't said to not be under control of the Dark
Lord (which in my mind implies some might have been, some might not have been or
they all were under dominion of the Dark Lord).
Originally Gollum was - because this is how it was in the first edition of The
Hobbit and so Tolkien was working under those constraints - willing to give up
the Ring because he was tired of it; as soon as (in The Hobbit) Bilbo showed up
a plan began to formulate in his mind to get rid of the Ring. He could have
given it to the goblins but they were already evil enough where it wouldn't
amuse him and it would be dangerous for an invisible goblin - dangerous to
Gollum, that is.
Here Bilbo also had pity for the creature and Gandalf rebukes Bingo for having
suggesting it a pity he didn't kill Gollum when he had the chance. Only here
Gandalf tells him if he had done so it would be against the rules; he'd not have
had the Ring but the Ring would have had him at once (much like it does to
Sméagol -> Gollum in LR); here though it is also said by Gandalf that he might
have become a wraith at once! I want to say also in one of the earlier
drafts of LR Gandalf tells Bingo that if after he was stabbed by the
Morgul-knife (the attack itself varies in the drafts too but I've not documented
that yet) he were to put the Ring on he would have become a wraith at once also;
there were variations on this whole theme though and I'm not sure now what ended
up finally (even though I reread LR recently I also started reading RS off and
on and I'm quite busy and stressed). I do think however it was said in an
earlier draft: had Bingo put the Ring on he would have become a wraith. Of
course he doesn't do this in the end just as Frodo doesn't in FR. But that came after the first edition of
Before the darker nature of the Ring of Power was developed (remembering that The Hobbit wasn't meant to have a sequel)
Gollum was willing to give the Ring up to Bilbo if he won the Riddle-game. Of course Bilbo had already found it so Bilbo says never mind to him since he would
have had it (and Gollum wouldn't have) anyway if he gave it up and he'll let him
(Gollum) off if he shows Bilbo the way out of the cave. Gollum was relieved as
in this edition he truly was going to honour the Riddle-game rules (though of
course Bilbo didn't really honour it but since Gollum agreed to try to answer it
was acceptable) and give up his birthday gift (and he apologised profusely,
pleading for forgiveness). Since this obviously couldn't happen once the darker
nature was developed Tolkien modified it to later editions and then could say
Bilbo told this story (and of course it was a lie but this was the Ring's
influence on Bilbo).
There are some other slight changes which I cannot recall but they all involve
the Ring; for those who want to read the first edition you can order it at the
online Tolkien Bookshop (tolkien.co.uk) here. It
gives insight into how Tolkien originally envisioned it (and the finality of the
story) - and of course The Hobbit in any edition is a delightful story. I also
have more information on the development of the nature of the One Ring but this
too I do not currently have access to.
Strider was earlier called Trotter (who would go through many name changes back and forth) and he was a hobbit
(the name changes continued after it was decided he was after all a Man); he wore wooden shoes,
though, and he tells why at the Council of Elrond: he was actually captured in Mordor
and there is the suggestion that he had injuries to his feet and/or he then had
wooden feet (I want to say this was in TI but it was a long time ago I read it
but in either case for a Hobbit to wear shoes is by itself odd).
Trotter was not the only one who would later become a Man who was originally
a hobbit: Barliman Butterbur was originally called Timothy Titus (as a hobbit)
(the name actually from another story of Tolkien's though the two were very
different) and later became Barnabas Butterbur (also a hobbit) and only later would become
Barliman Butterbur (a Man). Bill Ferny (originally spelt Ferny but at one point
spelt Ferney and of course in the end it was Ferny) was also a hobbit and possibly so was the
swarthy looking person the hobbits see at The Prancing Pony (which was originally called
'The White Horse') - though I can't be 100% on that last one I seem to remember this
nonetheless. Nob was originally called Lob which is very interesting: Lob is an
Old English word for 'spider' and this is where the creature Shelob gets her
name: it literally means she spider. But Lob was in fact a hobbit here and later
becomes a Man.
The arrival of Bree and the events in Bree went through quite a few changes.
Trotter actually encounters the Nazgûl and goes on to tell Gandalf about them
being abroad (instead of Radagast the Brown at the bequest of Saruman the White
in FR); Gandalf actually writes the letter and leaves it in Trotter's care in
one draft and in another leaves it with Barnabas (who is equally forgetful as in
FR). Also, unlike in FR, Barnabas actually respects (or at least doesn't question the nature of) Trotter. Trotter
also praises Barnabas for turning away the Nazgûl (who asked about four hobbits
with five ponies coming out from The Shire); to be specific, Trotter tells Bingo
he should be very grateful for Baranbas's actions. So Trotter actually has easy
access to the hobbits unlike in FR and this is good for the hobbits; this of
course didn't make it in the end.
But who is Trotter?
Tolkien asked multiple times who Trotter was. He suggests that Rangers are
best not hobbits but either way Trotter must not be a hobbit OR he is someone
very well known e.g. Bilbo! The following note in RS in chapter 'QUERIES AND
ALTERATIONS' was one of several made by Tolkien:
Rangers are best not as hobbits, perhaps. But either Trotter (as a
ranger) must be not a hobbit, or someone very well known: e.g.
Bilbo. But the latter is awkward in view of 'happily ever after'. I
thought of making Trotter into Fosco Took (Bilbo's first cousin)
who vanished when a lad, owing to Gandalf. Who is Trotter? He
must have had some bitter acquaintance with Ring-wraiths &c.
Christopher notes that this is to be taken with Bingo's feeling that he had
met Trotter before and should be able to think of his true name. Bilbo's first
cousin Fosco Took hadn't yet been mentioned; Christopher goes on to say this
about Fosco vanishing:
The ascription of Fosco Took's vanishing to Gandalf looks back to the
beginning of The Hobbit, where Bilbo says to him. 'Not the Gandalf who
was responsible for so many quiet lads and lasses going off into the Blue
for mad adventures?'
Of course at this stage it's still Bingo Bolger-Baggins who is the
Ring-bearer. Instead though he brings his nephews Odo and Frodo Took, along.
Which leads me to the next section regarding the flight of the Hobbits (leaving
the Shire) and also the origin of the Nazgûl snuffling.
In FR Frodo Baggins, Samwise Gamgee and Peregrin Took are in Hobbiton and
Sam hears hoofs. Frodo does not want to be seen by anyone and he wants to pull
a fast one on Gandalf (for being late if it is Gandalf). Of course it is the
Nazgûl and Frodo does NOT put the Ring on. Originally however the hobbits are
not the same: Bingo Bolger-Baggins, Frodo and Odo. Bilbo in one version is
Bingo's father and in another version is Bingo's uncle; Frodo and Odo are
Bingo's nephews, as noted in the previous section.
But whereas in FR Samwise Gamgee recounts hearing the Nazgûl in Hobbiton
earlier (after Frodo tells about the snuffling as if trying to find an elusive
scent when they get off the road after Sam hears hoofs), originally it is the
here mentioned Frodo who heard it but much earlier (which is odd because why are
they only seeking Bingo now allowing that he's fleeing just in time?). But where
does this snuffling come from if not the Nazgûl? In the original draft there are slight
Before this however, as above, the cloaked figure is white and it is
Gandalf; Gandalf saw the hobbits and so knows Bingo is playing a prank. But he
still sniffs and acts just as the Nazgûl later does with some additions. Tolkien
later points out that Bingo Bolger-Baggins must think about using the Ring but
must resist until the incident at Weathertop (where they will have Trotter ->
Strider). The sequence went this way:
Bingo Bolger-Baggins is with his nephews Frodo and Odo. This is not
Frodo Baggins and none of the adventures with Bingo which include Frodo does
it refer to Frodo Baggins.
It is this Frodo who hears the hoofs and it is Bingo who doesn't want to
be seen (not only because he was meant to have 'disappeared' but because he
had a feeling that the Black Rider(s) meant no good). In a later revision
Gandalf tells Bingo (when they finally meet up again in Rivendell) he should have
waited until he [Gandalf] returned but of course he likely would have been caught
in that case (and in the final Gandalf wanted Frodo Baggins to leave sooner
but he never got the note because Butterbur forgot to send the letter!).
Frodo and Odo move out of sight and Bingo puts on the One Ring.
A small, white cloaked figure on horseback stops right in front of Bingo
and begins to sniff.
Gandalf calls out Bingo on his prank and Bingo reveals himself.
Gandalf tells how he saw the hobbits not long before (when the hobbits
could hear but not see the horse) and so knew Bingo was playing a prank. He
first says it wasn't through magic.
This sequence changed slightly but was the beginning of the Nazgûl snuffling out
for Frodo Baggins.
But in an earlier plot Bingo would use the Ring to hide from
the Nazgûl during his flight from The Shire! Similarly Bingo would
hide from Farmer Maggot; originally Bingo had made such an effort of escaping
unseen he didn't want to be seen and because of the encounters with the Nazgûl
he now doubly doesn't want to be (in fact Maggot would send the Nazgûl away,
doing Bingo much good). Bingo is stuck outside while Frodo and Odo are having
food/drinks and Bingo decides to play a prank: he would take the mug of beer
from Maggot's hand and drink the remaining beer, terrifying Maggot as well as
Frodo and Odo (though they weren't as terrified and more so annoyed). This event
would change over time though and Bingo hides from Maggot not to remain unseen
but for his life; when Bingo was younger he had been attacked by one of Maggot's
dogs and Bingo ended up killing the dog. Maggot then threatened Bingo if he ever
showed up again he would kill Bingo! There are other variations too where
one has Bilbo and Bingo in the grasp of Maggot. In either case Bingo hides from
Maggot originally though of course later on it'd be extremely dangerous for him
to use the Ring in that way. I have documented the actual prank but I currently
have no access to it so for now I will let this be.
Incidentally, Meriadoc (Merry) was originally called
Marmaduke but he was not there initially. To be more correct, there were a lot
of name changes and it isn't necessarily true to say they can be directly mapped
from one to the other (although for some they largely can esp Bingo to Frodo
Those who have read TS might remember that in the fall of the city
Gondolin the Elf Glorfindel died as he slew a Balrog (a fate that everyone who
killed a Balrog faced: the Balrog would fall as would its opponent).
Tolkien was questioned if this is the same Glorfindel in FR and he gave it some
thought. This might be in the history but I honestly can't recall (when I first
wrote this I had recently read a good many of the Letters) but it certainly is
in the Letters. Either way he decided that Glorfindel was released from Mandos
and so indeed Glorfindel in FR is the same elf who was slain in the fall of
But what exactly is a Balrog? I already gave a basic description in the
Vocabulary section but I'll elaborate a bit more here: the history of the name and its translation is very interesting; at least in the second edition (I've not checked my
first edition which belonged to my mother) of The Silmarillion it is first likened
to 'demon of terror' but this is not the only translation: you have 'demon of might' (which makes
sense because 'Melkor' translates to 'He Who Arises In Might') amongst other
translations (you might say that through their might, shadow and flame they
instil terror into their enemies).
There is much to write about them - and there is a very contentious debate about whether they can
fly (I have actually written an essay on this with a different angle here and
there is another good discussion at
The Encyclopaedia of Arda) but I will only
briefly reference them for they are a formidable foe of the enemies of the [first] Dark Lord
Melko/Melkor/Morgoth (until the fall of Melko/Melkor - called Morgoth after he stole the Silmarilli [as
told in TS]); Melkor's most loyal servant was Sauron, however, and of course
Sauron would become the next Dark Lord after Morgoth was banished. I will possibly return to Balrogs again but for
the time being suffice it to say it is the creature Gandalf went into Shadow in
the Mines of Moria in FR (and he too indeed was killed along with the Balrog
known as Durin's Bane; Gandalf of course is returned to life). The
Balrogs and the Fire Drakes were perhaps the two most feared foes of the enemies of Morgoth.
At first the 'Giant Treebeard' (as he was called and at some point also 'Tree
Beard') was in league with the Enemy and actually kept
Gandalf prisoner for some time (that's where he was when he was trying
to return to The Shire as he found out the Ringwraiths were once again abroad
contrast instead of being held at the tower Orthanc in Isengard by
Saruman); another version had Gandalf stuck in a tower surrounded by at
least some of the Ringwraiths but I cannot recall exactly how he escaped:
perhaps they were summoned? I seem to recall that. In any case this means he
[Treebeard] was in fact once a Giant and his forest Fangorn was a gigantic
forest (and he had two or three Giants with him). In TT Merry Brandybuck and
Pippin Took would encounter Treebeard and have quite an adventure. But
originally Frodo [Baggins; Tolkien would eventually realise Bingo Bolger-Baggins
would be Frodo Baggins along with other name and role changes] would have an encounter with Treebeard (I
don't recall specifics but I presumably will document this in the future).
A troll is a stone inhabited by a Goblin spirit which is to say a Stone Giant. When Tolkien decided that Treebeard was not after all a Giant but
instead an Ent (which derives from Old English 'ent' which comes from
'eoten' for 'giant') he had to change the name of (as I
recall it) 'Entish Lands' to 'Ettenmoors'. The latter is of course on the final map of Middle-earth and of its
residents three were infamous: Tom, Bert and William Huggins, the trolls who
were tricked by Gandalf to remain out long enough to be hit by the Sun - and therefore turn to Stone (hence
Stone Giants); whilst Melkor's Trolls (etc.) had this weakness later breeds of Sauron and in particular the
Uruk-hai ('Orc-folk', 'Orc-people') and Olog-hai ('Troll-folk', 'Troll-people') did not (which might seem in
some ways ironic if you consider Sauron was a Maia whereas Melkor was originally an Ainu; indeed Sauron was
Melkor's most loyal lieutenant and was considered equally as evil as Melkor except that for a long time he did
not serve himself).
Moria's meaning was actually different in the past: in LR of course it is
The Black Pit but beforehand it was Black Gulf. Also, and this is pure
speculation on my part (and with the note that I actually don't think it's likely but it is
interesting in any case at least to me), originally (as I recall) the River
leading to Rivendell was called the Riven river and so Riven + dell. Of course
it's proper name is Imladris but that isn't in the common tongue.
Gamgee: Stayathome and Hamfast (as in Gaffer Gamgee being Sam's father).
Shelob: 'lob' is an old word for spider so 'She spider'.
On the One Ring: in a plot outline Gollum would betray Frodo to the spiders but instead of Shelob
trying to eat Frodo (or anything and everything) the spider would magically put Frodo to sleep. Also,
around this time (it's obviously not all complete) Gollum's cries would be heard by the Ringwraiths
but somehow Frodo lost the ring (I want to say either Gollum stole it at that time or Sam obtained it -
maybe wrestling it from Gollum - until he could rescue Frodo) yet had another ring -
and he was then in a dungeon in Minas Morgul (though at that point spelt Minas
Morgol). The Ringwraiths realising that the ring he had was not the One Ring threatened to send him to Barad-dûr (sometimes spelt
Barraddur and Barrad dur). But that's when Sam rescues him. I know there was something about overpowering the
Ringwraiths or something along those lines.
Here too Frodo initially saw him as an Orc (because Sam had the One Ring, much like
when Sam rescues him in Cirith Ungol in the Lord of the Rings) and therefore
hated him but Sam then handed it to him and they then dressed up as Orcs like in
the book. Their escape route was of course quite different and there were some
differences in how they went about it too. I want to say they both got around
Orcs but differently: this including if I recall Frodo using the Ring (of course
Sam would use the One Ring to hide from the Orcs in Cirith Ungol out of
necessity also but I want to say here it was riskier than in the final, at least
if you consider the final plot). Of course using the Ring near the Ringwraiths would never be wise (as
Frodo finds out when the Ring influences him to put it on at Weathertop and
there stabbed by a Morgul-knife by the Witch-king of Angmar, Lord of the
On the other hand it could have also been that Sam rescued him from the spider(s) when this
happened (I can't recall for certain but again these variants were brought up around
the same time). I should say these were different plots rather than slight
The spiders plot obviously was what would later become Shelob ('lob' being an
old word for 'spider' and therefore 'She+spider') and instead of the spell of
sleep it was venom meant to paralyse the victim so she could eat her prey at her
convenience; she would of course have eaten Frodo but for Samwise Gamgee.
Gollum's plan of course was to recover his Precious after Shelob eats Frodo but
this never happens; he backs away until they are at close to Sammath Naur where
he would shortly fall into the Cracks of Doom after biting the Ring off Frodo's
finger and therefore finishing the quest for Frodo - and saving the world.
Of course Gollum never would have been able to keep the Ring this time around;
Sauron and his armies were too powerful - not to mention so close to home.
Gollum would have been taken to Barad-dûr and would have been killed. This
didn't come to pass, however, and in either case the spider plot would change
along with the geography.
In an earlier version of this document I noted that C.T. wrote about what the
Nazgûl winged mounts were; in an earlier draft it would be that the Ringwraiths
were instead demonic vultures; then instead the mounts would
be demonic vultures. And indeed in The Return of the King they are referred
to amongst other things vultures (though this isn't the steed but the
Nazgûl themselves). This to me makes it most canon that they were
vultures: demonic vultures in particular. However in Letter #211 a Ms. Rhona Beare asked a
number of questions (including the colour of the two unnamed wizards that I
document next in this document). Question #4 had a number of parts and it
ended with the following:
Did the Witch-king ride a pterodactyl at the siege of
Tolkien had this to say in the matter:
Pterodactyl. Yes and no. I did not intend the steed of the Witch-king to be
what is now called a 'pterodactyl', and often is drawn (with rather less shadowy
evidence that than lies behind many monsters of the new and fascinating
semi-scientific mythology of the 'Prehistoric'). But obviously it is
pterodactylic and owes much to the mythology, and its description even
provides a sort of way in which it could be a last survivor of older geological
There is a footnote at the end where the editors of the Letters say that he
didn't send that copy but instead a less elaborate version; it's understandable
they would include this version though because it's more interesting to the
study of Tolkien and his works.
On the colours of the Istari that weren't named in The L.R.: Tolkien was asked
a number of questions including this and he answered it in Letter #211:
I have not named the colours, because I do not know them. I doubt if they
had distinctive colours. Distinction was only required in the case of the three
who remained in the relatively small area of the North-west. (On the *names* see
Q[uestion[5.). I really do not know anything clearly about the other two - since
they do not consider the history of the N.W. I think they went as emissaries to
distant regions, East and South, far out of Númenórean range: missionaries
'enemy-occupied' lands, as it were. What success they had I do not know; but I
fear that they failed, as Saruman did, though doubtless in different ways; and I
suspect they were founders or beginners of secret cults and 'magic' traditions
that outlasted the fall of Sauron.
The footnote  in the letter above has the following to say:
Elsewhere Tolkien called the other two wizards Ithryn Luin, the Blue
Wizards; see Unfinished Tales pp.389-90.
As for question #5 he had this to say about the names of the other two Istari
and more generally about names full stop:
Since the Valar had no language of their own, not needing one, they had no
'true' names, only identities, and their names were conferred on them by the
Elves, being in origin therefore all, as it were, 'nicknames', referring to some
striking peculiarity, function or deed. (The same is true of the 'Istari' or
Wizards who were emissaries of the Valar, and of their kind.) In consequence
each identity had several 'nicknames'; and the names of the Valar were not
necessarily related in different languages (or languages of Men deriving their
knowledge from Elves).
He goes on to say something interesting here; he gives the example that
Elbereth and Varda 'Star-lady' and 'Lofty' are not related words but in fact
they do refer to the same person (he used the word person here too so one might
argue that he uses the term generally).
However in the Unfinished Tales C.T. notes the following:
Whereas in the essay on the Istari it is said that the two who passed into the
East had no names save Ithryn Luin 'the Blue Wizards' (meaning of course that
they had no names in the West of Middle-earth), here they are named, as Alatar
and Pallando, and are associated with Oromë, though no hint is given of the
reason for this relationship. It might be (though this is the merest guess) that
Oromë of all the Valar had the greatest knowledge of the further parts of
Middle-earth and to remain there.
Beyond the fact that these notes on the choosing of the Istari certainly date
from after the complete of The Lord of the Rings I can find no evidence of
their relationship, in time of composition, to the essay on the Istari.
I know of no other writings about the Istari save some very rough and in part
uninterpretable notes that certainly much later than any of the foregoing, and
probably date from 1972:
He goes on to cite the actual writings but I won't include that here. As for the
footnote  Christopher notes that in a letter Tolkien states that 'There
is hardly any reference in The Lord of the Rings to things that do not
actually exist on its own plane (of secondary or sub-creational reality)',
and added a footnote: 'The cats of Queen Berúthiel and the names of the other
two wizards (five minus Saruman, Gandalf, Radagast) are all that I recollect.'
I am not sure which letter this is offhand but I don't think it matters much if
at all so I won't try and find it. I seem to recall though the two names given
above though whether I am mixing it up with those above or not I do not
At one point there was a thought that Sam might
wrestle the Ring from Gollum and they both fall in (referencing Sam saying that
he thinks there is something he must do before the end); in LR of course Sam
thinks it is that he would go to the very end and die in the process but of
course he is rescued in the end. In the Letters Tolkien
states also that if Sam was kinder to Gollum he might have tried to take the
Ring from Frodo (as he does in the end) but upon realising he could not have
both the Ring and survival he would cast himself into the fire and therefore
be faithful to his Master in the end and also save the world (of course Gollum
loved and hated himself as he loved and hated the Ring).
Original name of Gríma Wormtongue (who wasn't always in the plot outline): Frána Wormtongue. Initially,
before the love between Arwen Undómiel arose, in fact before Arwen existed, Aragorn son of Arathorn would
wed Eowyn (so spelt at the time without the accent). This was then scratched out but still it was suggested
Aragorn would never wed after her death. Of course this was very different in the end because of Arwen and
instead Éowyn (now with the accent) would wed Faramir (brother of Boromir of the Fellowship). At one point
Eowyn (early stages) was still related to King Theoden (so spelt at the time) - who was actually at the time
not called 'King' but I believe Lord or some other title - but in a different way; I cannot recall specifically.
Gandalf's horse was not originally called Shadowfax.
Narothal ('Firefoot'), the first name given to Gandalf's white horse,
was replaced later in pencil by the suggestions: 'Fairfax, Snowfax', and pencilled in the margin is 'Firefoot Arod? Aragorn', but these
latter were struck out. Arod became in LR the name of a horse of
At another point the horse would be called Greyfax. If memory serves me
correctly he acquired the horse from Rohan differently but how so I'm